Range extenders

Increasing range and link robustness

Increasing range

The range and link robustness of Nordic nRF52 and nRF53 Series SoCs fulfill the requirements of most applications and use-cases, but sometimes adding an RF front end module (FEM) is the correct choice. An RF FEM increases the range at which two wireless devices can communicate, while also enhancing link robustness. Combining our nRF21540 RF FEM with an nRF52 or nRF53 Series SoC can boost range by up to a factor of 8.

 

 

In the image above, a regular connection with 0 dBm TX output power is compared to a +20 dBm TX output power connection with an nRF21540 RF FEM on both sides. Both the increased TX output power, as well as RX sensitivity improvements from the nRF21540 help boost the range of the connection.

 

Be aware that a +20 dBm TX output power is not allowed in all regions. See the maximum regulatory output power table for more details.

Maximize link budget

While staying within regulatory boundaries

Both the TX output power and the receiver sensitivity directly influence the link budget of a connection.

 

After the Bluetooth 5 specification increased the maximum permissible output power to +20 dBm, device output power is now limited by regulatory boundaries in most regions.

  

Pairing the nRF21540 RF FEM with an nRF52 or nRF53 Series SoC enables fine-grained TX power tunability, resulting in a TX power at maximum 1 dBm below the regulatory limits mentioned below. The TX gain is dynamically adjustable, enabling the possibility of implementing adaptive gain control algorithms. When running 1 Mbps Bluetooth LE, the RX sensitivity improves to -100 dBm for all nRF52 and nRF53 Series SoCs. The sensitivity is even better when running Bluetooth 5 Long Range, Thread or Zigbee.

 

The table below summarizes main regulatory output power limits in dBm, unless specified in Watts. Please check the rules for the region you plan to ship your product into.

Maximum regulatory output power

Organization Bluetooth LE
Bluetooth LE
Bluetooth LE
Bluetooth LE
802.15.4
Throughput
 125 kbps
 500 kbps
  1 Mbps
 2 Mbps
 250 kbps
FCC
 10 20
  20
20
30 or 1W
ETSI
 10 10   10 10
13
 ARIB
 10  10  10
10
10

Link robustness

Increases link stability

In addition to increasing range, an RF FEM also increases the robustness of the link connection. A more robust link leads to less packet loss, meaning less retransmissions. Retransmissions are redundant packets that reduce energy efficiency and maximum throughput. The probability of successfully receiving the first packet also increases, resulting in a more stable link latency.

Applications

Many applications can benefit from adding an RF FEM, including asset tracking, smart home, industrial, smart agriculture, audio, as well as professional lighting. Smart home, as well as industrial applications, benefit from extended range (e.g. range in an entire home). Audio applications benefit via increased throughput and decreased latency.

Explore the nRF21540 range extender

Recommended for Nordic's low power short-range wireless protocols

nRF21540 RF FEM

RF front end module (FEM) for Bluetooth® Low Energy, Bluetooth® mesh, 2.4 GHz proprietary and Thread and Zigbee.

Supports Bluetooth® Low Energy, Bluetooth® mesh, Thread and Zigbee (802.15.4) and 2.4 GHz proprietary protocols

Tunable output power in small increments up to +21 dBm

13 dB RX gain with 2.7 dB noise figure

Two antenna ports for antenna diversity

TX gain control via I/Os, SPI, or a combination

-40 °C to 105 °C extended operating temperature range

1.7 to 3.6 V supply range

4x4 mm QFN16 package

Between 6.3-10x range extension when combined with an nRF52 or nRF53 Series SoC

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